Strategies for sustaining crop germplasm preservation, enhancement, and use by Garrison Wilkes

Cover of: Strategies for sustaining crop germplasm preservation, enhancement, and use | Garrison Wilkes

Published by Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Secretariat in Washington, D.C .

Written in English

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StatementGarrison Wilkes.
SeriesIssues in agriculture -- no.5
ContributionsConsultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Secretariat.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL17845419M

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Strategies for Sustaining Crop Germplasm Preservation, Enhancement, and Use Garrison Wilkes Introduction The idea comes first, then the accomplishment: in the same way genes are the blueprint and plant breeding is the yield improvement that feeds the expanding human populations.

Genetically improved cultivated plants and. Strategies for sustaining crop germplasm preservation, enhancement, and use (English) Abstract. Better germplasm is the fastest and least expensive input for increasing crop plant productivity.

The demands for increased food productivity mean that the ability of natural systems to conserve genetic resources has been diminished (genetic erosion).Cited by: Enter the password to open this PDF file: Cancel OK. File name:. Strategies for sustaining crop germplasm preservation, enhancement, and use (الانكليزية) ا٠خ٠اصة Better germplasm is the fastest and least expensive input for increasing crop plant by: Strategies for Sustaining Crop Germplasm Preservation, Strategies for sustaining crop germplasm preservation and Use.

By Garrison Wilkes and CGIAR Secretariat. Get PDF (4 MB) Abstract. Issues in Agriculture no. 5 from the series "Issues in Agriculture" published by the CGIAR Secretariat Year: OAI identifier: oai: Author: Garrison Wilkes and CGIAR Secretariat.

Strategies for Sustaining Crop Germplasm Preservation, Enhancement, and Use Garrison Wilkes Introduction The idea comes flrst, then the accomplishment; in the same way genes are the blueprint and plant breeding is the yield improvement that feeds the expanding human populations.

Genetically improved cultivated plants and. Energy Usage Sustainable Society Genetic Enhancement Strategies for Sustaining Crop Germplasm Preservation, Enhancement, and Use.

Issues in Agriculture, No. Environment and the Implication for Energy Usage. In: White J.C. (eds) Global Energy Strategies. Environmental Science Research, vol Springer, Boston, MA.

DOI Chapter 26 (Page no: ) Germplasm enhancement to sustain genetic gains in crop improvement. Germplasm enhancement has become an important tool for the genetic improvement of breeding populations by gene introgression or incorporation of wild and landrace genetic resources into respective crop breeding pools.

Germplasm enhancement with wild species has seldom resulted in direct cultivar release, but many parents with "wild" genes became available for breeding crops of. Short-term preservation of maize landrace seed and taro propagules using indigenous storage methods A.T.

Modi, [email protected] Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, Discipline of Crop Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, ScottsvilleSouth Africa.

Germplasm of the last category is best held in natural systems or entire and use book. The remaining more immediately useful plants and animals once held in the now disappearing peasant agriculture are assembled in situ or more extensively ex situ in genebanks. The problem with the easier to manage ex situ banking is that it withdraws seed and semen/ova from observation.

Consequently, the development of viable strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of CWR is required for germplasm enhancement of crop plants. In February,at the International Potato Center in Lima, Peru, the Global Crop Diversity Trust convened a meeting of potato CWR experts to discuss strategies for germplasm collection and use.

utilized in maize for its yield enhancement due to availability of The conservation of germplasm involves the preservation of.

component of the global strategy to conserve crop. This Book was ranked at 19 by Google Books for keyword Evolution. Book ID of Fundamentals of Gene Evolution's Books is T9aNqdaXrX8C, Book which was written by M.

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This book contains edited and revised papers from a conference on 'Science and Technology for Managing Plant Genetic Diversity in the 21st Century' held in Malaysia in Juneorganised by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).

It includes keynote papers and some 40 additional ones, covering ten major scientific challenges to developing a global 3/5(2).

Limitations in germplasm use. The use of available genetic resources in crop improvement is the most neglected part of germplasm conservation (de Wet, ).

A very large gap exists between actual utilization of the germplasm and availability of collection in the genebanks (Wright, ; Upadhyaya et al., ). Germplasm resources would.

Specific crop missions will need different forms depending on the crop; the format for recording such information as adapted by IRRI for rice is given in Appendix II. Also, for wild species collecting, forage collecting, etc., specific format as per crop/plant(s) is to be designed.

Germplasm collecting strategies: salient points. The use of PCR to recover sequences from herbarium specimens (Rogers and Bendich, ) may mean that specimens should be regarded as a form of germplasm. PCR analyses will be useful for comparative genetic studies, which, until now, have depended on morphological or chemical comparisons rather than functional genetic analyses using the tools.

Consequently, the development of viable strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of CWR is required for germplasm enhancement of crop plants. In February,the Global Crop Diversity Trust convened a meeting of a group of potato CWR experts to discuss strategies for germplasm collection and utilization.

Soil fertility is the ability of soil to sustain plant growth and optimize crop yield. This can be enhanced through organic and inorganic fertilizers to the soil. Nuclear techniques provide data that enhances soil fertility and crop production while minimizing the environmental impact.

3. It is the total content of genes. It serves as the raw material for the breeder to develop different crops. The main objective of germplasm collection is preservation of genetic diversity if a particular plant or genetic stock for its use in the future.

Exploration and Germplasm. Irrespective of germplasm bank facilities, there are about significant crop germplasm collections (Williams, a), but little information on how many of these are financially viable. IBPGR has designated of these at 38 centers as global, continental, or regional base collections (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, a).

Genetic characterization and its use in decision-making for the conservation of crop germplasm M. C armen de V icente, F elix A lberto G uzmán, J an E ngels and V. R amanatha R ao. The role of biotechnology in the conservation, sustainable use and genetic enhancement of bioresources in fragile ecosystems P rashanth S.

R aghavan and A jay P. The evolution of the Germplasm Resources Information Network over the past 30 years (keywords ‘GRIN germplasm’) was the culmination of these advances for germplasm in the United States, providing standardized online storage and access for virtually all genebank-related information, including germplasm ordering.

The goal of germplasm enhancement is to introgress traits from wild crop relatives into cultivated material and eventually cultivars. It seeks to restore genetic diversity that has been lost over time or to augment cultivated material with novel alleles that improve parents in breeding programs.

This paper discusses potato germplasm enhancement efforts in the past, focusing. Corn (Zea mays L.) is an important cereal crop indigenous to the Americas, where its genetic biodiversity is still preserved, especially among native populations from Mesoamerica and South America.

The use of metabolomics in corn has mainly focused on understanding the potential differences of corn metabolomes under different biotic and abiotic stresses or to. I am a senior research scientist in the Molecular Biology Department at Institute of Crop Science.

My research has been focused on the drought tolerance (DT) and water use efficiency (WUE) in crop plants, especially in common wheat, including phenotype, genotype and germplasm enhancement. Part VI: PGR conservation and use policy Moving slowly towards the light: a review of efforts to create a global system for PGRFA over the last half century On the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources in Europe: a stakeholder analysis Towards an improved European Plant Germplasm System Impact of the gene.

Plant Genetic Resources and the History of N.I. Vavilov All Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources Collection. E x situ collections of cultivated plants and their wild relatives are the basic components of food and environmental security of each sovereign country, including Russia.

Their relevance and strategic importance have been recognized in the past decades. Non Technical Summary Increased diversification of crops that can be integrated into existing sustainable production systems without compromising acres devoted to food use, and th.

Project Methods The continued development of productive crop varieties for U.S. agriculture depends on plant scientistsâ¿¿ access to a wide range of well characterized crop genetic diversity. The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is one of the largest and most diverse genebank systems in the world, and the Plant and Animal Genetic Resources Preservation.

Strategy and action plan for conservation and use of PGR in Eastern Europe and the NIS of the former USSR: a report for CGIAR Eastern Europe/NIS Task Force, Rome, Anon. National reports for the Technical Meeting on Plant Genetic Resources for CACNET, Tashkent, December (manuscript).

resource preservation and use. Consumers in both the developed and developing world have benefited from higher yields and lower world prices for food. Without continued genetic enhancement using diverse germplasm from both wild and modified sources, the gains in crop yields obtained over the past seven decades are not sustainable, and yields might.

The primary objective of a crop network is to improve and/or coordinate conservation and utilisation of the crop genepool starting with a dialogue between all concerned parties-germplasm collectors, curators, researchers, breeders and other users -following an integrated approach (IBPGR, a; van Sloten, a, b).

This book is a valuable reference that describes the important crop wild relatives and wild utilized species found in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The book highlights efforts taken by these countries to conserve and use wild resources and provides essential information on best practices for collecting and conserving them.

conservation includes preservation, sustainable use, enhancement, and restoration. As a means of development, maintenance of the ecosystems in the interest of human economies should be integrated with sound management (Holdgate.

The conservation, management and utilization of plant genetic resources, also known as germplasm, form the basis for harnessing genetic diversity to create and sustain floriculture and nursery production systems.

Genetic resources, water, air, soil, minerals and crop management practices are crucial parts of the agricultural production system that sustains humanity and the.

Germplasm banks represent the opportunity to provide long-term preservation of important strains and diversity of those strains. These banks also have important implications for conservation efforts and, perhaps more importantly, as an optimal economic approach to conservation and restoration efforts [ 53 ].

/ A.H.D. Brown and C.L. Brubaker --Decision-making Strategies for Conservation and Use of Forest Genetic Resources / M.P. Koshy, G. Namkoong, P. Kageyama, A. Stella, F. Gandara and W.A. Neves do Amaral --Germplasm Enhancement to Sustain Genetic Gains in Crop Improvement / R.

Ortiz --Genetic Base Broadening in Autogamous Crops: Lycopersicon. Although they receive little recognition for their contribution, peasant farmers in the global South play a fundamental role in securing the long-term global food supply.

Via their self-sufficient agricultural practices, they cultivate the crop genetic diversity that enables food crops to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In this paper I draw upon empirical data from the.

use. However, crop genetic resources are largely public goods, so private incentives for genetic resource conservation may fall short of achieving public objectives.

Within the U.S. germplasm system, certain crop collec-tions lack sufficient diversity to reduce vulnerability to .vitro conservation methods for clonal germplasm. • BMPs and procedures for managing accessions (and breeding stocks) with GE traits and the occurrence of adventitious presence (AP).

• Acquiring and conserving additional germplasm, especially of crop wild relatives.This Book Looks At The Application Of A Variety Of Biotechnologies To Agricultural Development. It Addresses Recent Concerns About The Sterile-Seed Terminator Technology And About The Biosafety Of Genetically Modified Foods/Crops, And Assesses The Potential Of Apomixis As A Possible Countervailing Strategy To The Adverse Effects Of The Terminator.

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